There are two distinctive tendencies in the history of literature—Classic and Romantic. At some period in the history of Literature one tendency dominates, and then it is followed by the predominance of the other tendency, and in this manner they appear alternately, one following the other. In the history of English literature, the Elizabethan period may be called the first Romantic period, dominated by Marlowe, Shakespeare, Spenser and others. It was followed by the Classical period in the eighteenth century whose important literary figures were Dryden, Pope, Addison, Swift and Dr. Johnson.
The later part of the eighteenth century and the early part of the nineteenth century, whose prominent poets were Wordsworth, Coleridge, Scott, Byron, Shelley, Keats, was dominated by the romantic tendency, and hence it is called the Romantic period. During the Victorian period in English the romantic tendency continued to dominate literature, but the twentieth century literature shows signs of the Classical tendency.
The distinctive symptoms of Classicism are: belief in reason: emphasis on the civilized, modern and sophisticated modes of life; interest in urban society; preoccupation with human nature; love for mundane actuality; satirical tendency; expression of accepted moral truth; realistic recognition of things as they are; belief in good and evil; acceptance of established religious and philosophic creeds; attachment to normal, generic abstraction; impersonal objectivity; interest in public themes; emphasis on formal correctness, and the ideal of order; popularity of poetry of prose statement; use of formal poetic diction; self—conscious traditionalism; and rational sobriety of Latin literature. On the other hand, the symptoms of Romanticism are: belief in feelings, imagination and intuition; emphasis on the primitive, medieval and natural modes of life; interest in rural solitude; pre-occupation with the aesthetic and spiritual values of external nature; love for visions of the mysterious, the ideal and the infinite; tendency of myth-making; discovery of the beauty that is truth; faith in progress; belief in man and goodness and individual speculation and revelation; attachment to concrete particulars; subjectivism; interest in private themes; emphasis on individual expressiveness, and the ideal of intensity, popularity of image and symbol: use of common language; self-conscious originality and romantic Hellenism.
But the terms Classical and Romantic are not so strictly opposed to each other as has been pointed out; in fact, one grows out of the other and they overlap each other. In reality both the tendencies are present in great works of literature, though in varying proportions. In this connection Pater has observed in his book. Appreciations: “The words, classical and romantic, although like many other critical expressions, sometimes abused by those who have understood them too vaguely or too absolutely, yet define two real tendencies in the history of art and literature. Used in an exaggerated sense, to express a greater opposition between these tendencies than really exists, they have at times tended to divide people of taste into opposite camps. The terms classical, fixed as it is, to a well-defined literature is clear indeed; but then it has often been used in a hard, and merely scholastic sense, by the praisers of what is old and accustomed, at the expense of what is new, by critics who would never have discovered for themselves the charm of any work, whether new or old, who value what is old, in art or literature, for its accessories, and chiefly for the conventional authority that has gathered about it.
“And as the term classical has been used in a too absolute, and therefore, in a misleading sense, so the term romantic has been used much too vaguely, in various accidental senses. The sense in which Scott is called a romantic writer is chiefly this: that in opposition to the literary tradition of the eighteenth century, he loved strange adventure, and sought it in the Middle Ages…But the romantic spirit, is, in reality, ever present, an enduring principle, in the artistic temperament; and the qualities of thought and style which, that and other similar uses of the word romantic really indicate, are indeed but symptoms of a very continuous and widely working influence…
“The charm of what is classical, in art or literature, is that of a well-known tale, to which we can, nevertheless listen over and over again, because it is told so well. To the absolute beauty of its artistic form, is added the accidental, tranquil charm of familiarity…It is character in art; and the desire of beauty being a fixed element in every artistic organization, it is the addition of curiosity to the desire of beauty, that constitutes the romantic temper…The essential elements, then, of the romantic spirit are curiosity and the love of beauty; and it is only as an illustration of these qualities that it seeks the Middle Ages; because, in the overcharged atmosphere of Middle Ages, there are unworked sources of romantic effect, to be won, by strong imagination, out of things unlikely and remote…
“But however false these two tendencies may be opposed by critics, or exaggerated by artists themselves, they are tendencies really at work at all times in art, moulding it, with the balance sometimes a little on one side, sometimes a little on the other, generating, respectively as the balance inclines on this side or that, two principles, two traditions in art and literature.”
Classical and Romantic tendencies, when carried to the extreme do much damage to genuine literature. The former degenerates into rigid formalism and slavish obedience to rules, which suppress and undermine all initiative and originality of the writer, as was the case during the eighteenth century in England. The latter turns itself into license, extravagance and lack of restraint, which lead to chaos, as it happened in the later phases of Elizabethan romanticism. The best type of literature combines in equal proportion both the Classical and Romantic elements. In it we find strength exercised with restraint, disciplined imagination, perfect harmony, originality in conformity with the highest standard of literary excellence and, above all, ‘nothing too much’. Great writers like Chaucer, Milton, Shakespeare, exhibit in their work both the tendencies harmoniously blended.
Classicism Versus Romanticism In Tom Stoppard's Arcadia
Tom Stoppard is one of the finest playwrights of the modern age. Some of his well-known plays are Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, The Coast of Utopia, Every Good Boy Deserves Favour, Professional Foul, The Real Thingand many more.The finest of all his plays is Arcadia.The literary meaning of the term “Arcadia” inspired Tom Stoppard to write his play Arcadia. It was titled “Et in Arcadia ego”. “Arcadia” actually means a vision of pastoralism and harmony within nature. The Greek province of the same name has helped in the derivation of the term. The term’s existence has also been figured out in Renaissance Mythology. “Arcadia” refers as something unattainable as commonly as Utopia. The term “Arcadia” is symbolic of pastoral simplicity.
The playArcadia comprised themes of classical beauty and harmony in nature. In 1993, the play was penned by Tom Stoppard involving the relationship of the past and the present and between the order and disorder. It has been hailed as the finest play of contemporary theatre in English. Tom Stoppard highlights the relationship between the past and the present and struck a chord of harmony among the various aspects of life. According to Johann Hari, “Tom Stoppard’s Arcadia has only grown in power and relevance.”Stoppard had focused on proving the fact that scientific knowledge differs from literary or historical knowledge. The desire for knowledge is more important and art is easily understandable in a way that science is not while using the language of art to explain things. Tom Stoppard has been hailed as Britain’s greatest living playwright and his plays exemplify his artistic genius and craftsmanship.
Stoppard’s Arcadia is a comedy of ideas. According to Michael Bellington, “Arcadia adorns the West End and makes us think and feel in equal measure.” Michael Coveney has quoted about Arcadia in The Independentas “one of Tom Stoppard’s undisputed masterpieces.” The past and the present had been juxtaposed very efficiently with artistic genius. The setting of the play is in Derbyshire Country House in 1809 and in the modern day Stoppard had compressed new ideas and presented in the play. The play focuses on the romance of the mind and the body. Remarked by early reviewers to be similar to Tin Man in The Wizard of Oz, Tom Stoppard had excelled in this field and gives a glimpse of his theatrical genius with Arcadia.
Arcadia covers the two different ages- the early nineteenth century and the present modern world, matched, juxtaposed together bringing in a rare combination of the different facets of Classicism and Romanticism. The two timelines talk about sex, literature, love, epistemology, landscaping, the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the romance. Stoppard’s intellect looms large over the plot of the play and is efficiently presented in the form of this play. It is a two-act play containing seven scenes. The characters belonging to the early nineteenth century are Septimus, Thomasina, Mr. and Mrs. Chater,...
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